For Further Reading

1. Pleis JR, Coles R. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 1998. Vital Health Stat 10 2002 Dec; (209):1-113.

2. Bendouah Z, Barbeau J, Hamad WA, Desrosiers M. (2006). Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with an unfavorable evolution after surgery for chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134:991-6.

3. Costerton, J. W., P. S. Stewart, et al. (1999). Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science 284(5418): 1318-22

4. Galli, J., L. Calo, et al. (2008). Damage to ciliated epithelium in chronic rhinosinusitis: what is the role of bacterial biofilms? Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 117(12): 902-8.

5. Healy, D. Y., J. G. Leid, et al. (2008). Biofilms with fungi in chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 138(5): 641-7.

6. Kilty, S. J. and M. Y. Desrosiers (2008). The role of bacterial biofilms and the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 8(3): 227-33.

7. Prince, A. A., J. D. Steiger, et al. (2008). Prevalence of biofilm-forming bacteria in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol 22(3): 239-45.

8. Psaltis, A. J., E. K. Weitzel, et al. (2008). The effect of bacterial biofilms on post-sinus surgical outcomes. Am J Rhinol 22(1): 1-6.

9. Sanclement, J. A., P. Webster, et al. (2005). Bacterial biofilms in surgical specimens of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 115(4): 578-82.

10. Sanderson, A. R., J. G. Leid, et al. (2006). Bacterial biofilms on the sinus mucosa of human subjects with chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 116(7): 1121-6.

11. Cannady et al. (2005) Comparison of Delivery of Topical Medications to the Paranasal Sinuses via "Vertex-to-floor" Position and Atomizer Spray after FESS. Oto Head and Neck; 133(5): 735-740.

12. Stewart PS, Costerton JW. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms. Lancet 2001; 358: 135-38.

13. Desrosiers M, Myntti M, James G. (2007) Methods for removing bacterial biofilms: in vitro study using clinical chronic rhinosinusitis specimens. Am J Rhinol; 21(5):527-32.

Last update: 1 October 2009

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